Complete guide to Oligospermy in Australia: diagnosis, treatment and other conditions

When discussing male infertility, the focus is often on the most common causes. However, it is important to consider that certain abnormalities may be linked to other underlying conditions or diseases, which can potentially give rise to additional complications. Early detection of these issues offers the opportunity for correction or exploration of more effective alternative solutions.

Oligospermy is a common and significant condition that can hinder male fertility by reducing the quantity of sperm in the semen. According to data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), a man is diagnosed with oligospermy when his sperm concentration is below 15 million spermatozoa per milliliter.

Oligospermy can be caused by various diseases, such as hormonal disorders, testicular problems or infections. In many cases, Oligospermy is associated with other conditions, such as those described below:

Cryptorchidism: a condition associated with oligospermy

Cryptorchidism refers to the condition wherein one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum before birth. This can give rise to fertility difficulties because the undescended testicles are exposed to elevated temperatures, which can impact the production of sperm.

Cryptorchidism primarily occurs in a single testicle, accounting for approximately 80% of cases, and the left testicle is more commonly affected. Bilateral cryptorchidism, where both testicles are altered, is less common. To prevent fertility challenges, it is recommended that boys with cryptorchidism undergo surgery to descend the testicles into the scrotum before the age of 2 years.


Testicular varicocele is a condition characterized by the enlargement of veins that supply blood to the testicles. This dilation can lead to an increase in testicular temperature, which can adversely affect sperm production. While it is more commonly observed in one testicle, it can also affect both. When varicocele affects both testicles, it is more likely to contribute to infertility.

Furthermore, testicular varicocele can contribute to the development of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, a condition characterized by low-quality spermatozoa in terms of their number, motility, and morphology.

It can certainly improve if properly treated, and surgery is usually the most effective treatment, especially in severe cases.

Hypogonadism and oligospermy: links in reproductive health

Male hypogonadism refers to the condition in which the testicles do not produce an adequate amount of sex hormones, including testosterone. This hormonal imbalance significantly affects sperm production and can lead to infertility.

There are two primary types of male hypogonadism that can be distinguished:

  • In cases of primary hypogonadism, the testes experience dysfunction caused by internal problems. Klinefelter’s syndrome, one of the most prevalent genetic disorders within this category, can lead to reduced testosterone levels, decreased muscle mass, inadequate development of facial and body hair, and diminished sperm production.
  • In cases of secondary hypogonadism, the issue lies in the hypothalamus or pituitary glands, which are responsible for producing the hormones that stimulate the testes to produce sperm.

Treatment of this condition depends on the type of hypogonadism. In some cases, hormonal treatment can help restore testicular function and increase sperm production, leading to improved fertility projection.


Testicular hydrocele is a condition that causes fluid to accumulate around one or both testicles. It can be congenital or acquired, and is more common in men over 40 years of age.

While hydrocele itself does not typically cause infertility, it may be linked to infertility in approximately 10% of cases. This association arises from the potential partial obstruction of the vas deferens, which can lead to a reduction in the sperm count within the semen.


Oligoteratozoospermia refers to a condition where the concentration of spermatozoa in the semen is low, and the shape of the spermatozoa is abnormal. This term combines two observations from a spermogram: “oligo,” indicating a low sperm concentration (less than 15 million per milliliter), and “terato,” representing a low percentage of sperm with normal morphology (less than 4%). The presence of abnormal sperm morphology can hinder fertilization and potentially affect the development of embryos.

For men with severe oligoteratozoospermia who desire to conceive, in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is typically recommended. This procedure involves the selection of sperm with good morphology under a microscope, which are then directly injected into the egg. This technique enhances the likelihood of developing a healthy embryo.

Are you from Australia? Get an accurate diagnosis for better results

While receiving any of these diagnoses may initially dishearten men in their pursuit of starting a family, it is crucial to acknowledge the positive aspect of identifying these conditions early for timely treatment. This recognition can serve as a pivotal moment in improving fertility and overall well-being.

It is advisable to keep up to date with general check-ups, not only to increase the chances of being able to start a family, but also to avoid these diagnoses that can lead to irreversible consequences. These diagnoses can compromise the health and well-being of patients.

If you wish to start a family and experience difficulties in conceiving or know someone who may be suffering from infertility or any complication associated with the symptoms described above, it is vital to contact clinics specialized in Oligospermy, male fertility and assisted gestation, such as Babynova Clinic by Novafem, to receive advice on these issues and be treated as soon as possible.

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