Complete guide to Oligospermy in Georgia: diagnosis, treatment and other conditions

While discussing male infertility, it is common to address the primary causes. Nevertheless, it is crucial to recognize that certain abnormalities may be associated with underlying conditions or diseases, which can lead to the development of further complications. Identifying these issues at an early stage allows for potential correction or consideration of alternative solutions that may yield better outcomes.

One of the most common and harmful conditions is Oligospermy, which is a male disorder that hinders conception because it reduces the amount of sperm present in the semen. According to WHO data, a man has Oligospermy if his sperm concentration is less than 15 million spermatozoa per milliliter.

Oligospermy can be caused by various diseases, such as hormonal disorders, testicular problems or infections. In many cases, Oligospermy is associated with other conditions, such as those described below:

Cryptorchidism: a condition associated with oligospermy

Cryptorchidism is a condition characterized by the failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum before birth. This condition can lead to fertility challenges since the undescended testicles are exposed to higher temperatures, which can adversely affect sperm production.

Cryptorchidism predominantly affects a single testicle in about 80% of cases, with the left testicle being the most commonly affected. Bilateral cryptorchidism, where both testicles are undescended, is less frequent. To mitigate the risk of fertility difficulties, boys diagnosed with cryptorchidism should undergo surgical intervention to bring down the testicles into the scrotum before the age of 2 years.


Testicular varicocele is a condition characterized by the enlargement of veins that supply blood to the testicles. This dilation can lead to an increase in testicular temperature, which can adversely affect sperm production. While it is more commonly observed in one testicle, it can also affect both. When varicocele affects both testicles, it is more likely to contribute to infertility.

It can also cause oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, which is a condition in which the spermatozoa are of low quality, both in number and in motility and morphology.

Adequate treatment can lead to notable improvement in cases of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia associated with testicular varicocele. Surgery is generally considered the most effective treatment, particularly in severe instances.

Hypogonadism and oligospermy: links in reproductive health

Male hypogonadism refers to the condition in which the testicles do not produce an adequate amount of sex hormones, including testosterone. This hormonal imbalance significantly affects sperm production and can lead to infertility.

Male hypogonadism can be classified into two main types:

  • In cases of primary hypogonadism, the testes experience dysfunction caused by internal problems. Klinefelter’s syndrome, one of the most prevalent genetic disorders within this category, can lead to reduced testosterone levels, decreased muscle mass, inadequate development of facial and body hair, and diminished sperm production.
  • Secondary hypogonadism: There is an issue in the hypothalamus or pituitary glands, which are the glands that produce the hormones that stimulate sperm production in the testes.

The treatment of hypogonadism is determined by the specific type of the condition. Hormonal therapy can be utilized in certain cases to restore testicular function and stimulate increased sperm production, ultimately improving the outlook for fertility.


Testicular hydrocele is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid around one or both testicles. It can be either congenital or acquired, and it is more frequently observed in men who are over 40 years old.

Hydrocele is not a direct cause of infertility, but may be associated in 10% of cases, in which it can cause a partial obstruction of the vas deferens, which can reduce the number of sperm in the semen.


Oligoteratozoospermia refers to a condition where the concentration of spermatozoa in the semen is low, and the shape of the spermatozoa is abnormal. This term combines two observations from a spermogram: “oligo,” indicating a low sperm concentration (less than 15 million per milliliter), and “terato,” representing a low percentage of sperm with normal morphology (less than 4%). The presence of abnormal sperm morphology can hinder fertilization and potentially affect the development of embryos.

Men with severe oligoteratozoospermia who want to have children will need to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In this treatment, sperm with good shape are selected under the microscope and injected directly into the egg, thus increasing the chances of a healthy embryo.

Are you from Georgia? Get an accurate diagnosis for better results

Although any of these diagnoses may discourage men from pursuing their dream of conceiving a family, it is important to recognize the positive value of finding these conditions to treat them in time. That is what can represent a turning point in fertility and overall health.

It is recommended to maintain regular general check-ups to not only enhance the likelihood of starting a family but also to prevent the occurrence of these diagnoses, which can have irreversible consequences. These conditions have the potential to impact the health and well-being of individuals.

If you wish to start a family and experience difficulties in conceiving or know someone who may be suffering from infertility or any complication associated with the symptoms described above, it is vital to contact clinics specialized in Oligospermy, male fertility and assisted gestation, such as Babynova Clinic by Novafem, to receive advice on these issues and be treated as soon as possible.

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