Complete guide to Oligospermy in Russia: diagnosis, treatment and other conditions

While discussing male infertility, it is common to address the primary causes. Nevertheless, it is crucial to recognize that certain abnormalities may be associated with underlying conditions or diseases, which can lead to the development of further complications. Identifying these issues at an early stage allows for potential correction or consideration of alternative solutions that may yield better outcomes.

One of the most common and harmful conditions is Oligospermy, which is a male disorder that hinders conception because it reduces the amount of sperm present in the semen. According to WHO data, a man has Oligospermy if his sperm concentration is less than 15 million spermatozoa per milliliter.

Oligospermy can be attributed to various factors, including hormonal disorders, testicular issues, or infections. Besides, it is often associated with other conditions, some of which are described below:

Cryptorchidism: a condition associated with oligospermy

Cryptorchidism is a condition characterized by the failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum before birth. This condition can lead to fertility challenges since the undescended testicles are exposed to higher temperatures, which can adversely affect sperm production.

Cryptorchidism is most common in a single testicle (80%) and the left testicle is the most affected. Bilateral cryptorchidism is less common. To prevent fertility difficulties, boys with cryptorchidism need to have surgery to descend the testicles before the age of 2 years.


Testicular varicocele refers to the condition in which the veins supplying blood to the testicles become dilated. This dilation can result in elevated testicular temperature, which can have a negative impact on sperm production. While it is more prevalent in one testicle, it can also affect both. If varicocele affects both testicles, it is more likely to be associated with infertility.

Furthermore, testicular varicocele can contribute to the development of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, a condition characterized by low-quality spermatozoa in terms of their number, motility, and morphology.

Adequate treatment can lead to notable improvement in cases of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia associated with testicular varicocele. Surgery is generally considered the most effective treatment, particularly in severe instances.

Hypogonadism and oligospermy: links in reproductive health

Male hypogonadism refers to the condition in which the testicles do not produce an adequate amount of sex hormones, including testosterone. This hormonal imbalance significantly affects sperm production and can lead to infertility.

Male hypogonadism can be divided into two main types:

  • In cases of primary hypogonadism, the testes experience dysfunction caused by internal problems. Klinefelter’s syndrome, one of the most prevalent genetic disorders within this category, can lead to reduced testosterone levels, decreased muscle mass, inadequate development of facial and body hair, and diminished sperm production.
  • Secondary hypogonadism: There is an issue in the hypothalamus or pituitary glands, which are the glands that produce the hormones that stimulate sperm production in the testes.

The treatment of hypogonadism is determined by the specific type of the condition. Hormonal therapy can be utilized in certain cases to restore testicular function and stimulate increased sperm production, ultimately improving the outlook for fertility.


Testicular hydrocele is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid around one or both testicles. It can be either congenital or acquired, and it is more frequently observed in men who are over 40 years old.

Hydrocele is not a direct cause of infertility, but may be associated in 10% of cases, in which it can cause a partial obstruction of the vas deferens, which can reduce the number of sperm in the semen.


Oligotherotherozoospermia is a condition in which the concentration of spermatozoa in the semen is low and the shape of the spermatozoa is abnormal. This term brings together two spermogram findings, “Oligo” which refers to a low sperm concentration (less than 15 million x ML), and “terato” refers to a low concentration of normal shaped sperm (less than 4%). Abnormalities in sperm shape hinder fertilization and may also affect embryo development.

In cases of severe oligoteratozoospermia, men who wish to have children often undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). During this procedure, sperm with normal morphology are carefully chosen under microscopic guidance and directly injected into the egg. By employing this method, the chances of obtaining a viable embryo are significantly increased.

Are you from Russia? Get an accurate diagnosis for better results

Although any of these diagnoses may discourage men from pursuing their dream of conceiving a family, it is important to recognize the positive value of finding these conditions to treat them in time. That is what can represent a turning point in fertility and overall health.

It is advisable to keep up to date with general check-ups, not only to increase the chances of being able to start a family, but also to avoid these diagnoses that can lead to irreversible consequences. These diagnoses can compromise the health and well-being of patients.

If you or someone you know is facing challenges in conceiving or experiencing complications related to the symptoms described above, it is crucial to seek assistance from specialized clinics that focus on oligospermy, male fertility, and assisted reproduction, such as Babynova Clinic by Novafem. Contacting such clinics will provide valuable guidance and enable prompt treatment for these concerns.

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