How to combat Oligospermy? Discover a common cause of male infertility in Ukraine

When discussing male infertility, the focus is often on the most common causes. However, it is important to consider that certain abnormalities may be linked to other underlying conditions or diseases, which can potentially give rise to additional complications. Early detection of these issues offers the opportunity for correction or exploration of more effective alternative solutions.

One of the most common and harmful conditions is Oligospermy, which is a male disorder that hinders conception because it reduces the amount of sperm present in the semen. According to WHO data, a man has Oligospermy if his sperm concentration is less than 15 million spermatozoa per milliliter.

Oligospermy can be attributed to various factors, including hormonal disorders, testicular issues, or infections. Moreover, it is often associated with other conditions, some of which are described below:

Cryptorchidism: a condition associated with oligospermy

Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum before birth. This can cause fertility difficulties, as the undescended testicles are exposed to higher temperatures, which affects sperm production.

Cryptorchidism is most common in a single testicle (80%) and the left testicle is the most affected. Bilateral cryptorchidism is less common. To prevent fertility difficulties, boys with cryptorchidism need to have surgery to descend the testicles before the age of 2 years.


Testicular varicocele is a condition that causes dilation of the veins supplying the testicles. This can cause an elevation of testicular temperature, which can impact sperm production. It is most common in one testicle, but can also influence both. If it influences both testicles, it is more likely to cause infertility.

Additionally, testicular varicocele can lead to a condition called oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, which is characterized by low-quality spermatozoa in terms of both quantity and quality, including motility and morphology.

Adequate treatment can lead to notable improvement in cases of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia associated with testicular varicocele. Surgery is generally considered the most effective treatment, particularly in severe instances.

Hypogonadism and oligospermy: links in reproductive health

Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the testicles do not produce enough sex hormones, such as testosterone. This affects sperm production and can cause infertility as well.

Male hypogonadism can be divided into two main types:

  • In cases of primary hypogonadism, the testes experience dysfunction caused by internal problems. Klinefelter’s syndrome, one of the most prevalent genetic disorders within this category, can lead to reduced testosterone levels, decreased muscle mass, inadequate development of facial and body hair, and diminished sperm production.
  • Secondary hypogonadism occurs when there is a problem in the hypothalamus or pituitary glands, which are responsible for producing the hormones that stimulate sperm production in the testes.

Treatment of this condition depends on the type of hypogonadism. In some cases, hormonal treatment can help restore testicular function and increase sperm production, leading to improved fertility projection.


Testicular hydrocele is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid around one or both testicles. It can be either congenital or acquired, and it is more frequently observed in men who are over 40 years old.

While hydrocele itself does not typically cause infertility, it may be linked to infertility in approximately 10% of cases. This association arises from the potential partial obstruction of the vas deferens, which can lead to a reduction in the sperm count within the semen.


Oligoteratozoospermia refers to a condition where the concentration of spermatozoa in the semen is low, and the shape of the spermatozoa is abnormal. This term combines two observations from a spermogram: “oligo,” indicating a low sperm concentration (less than 15 million per milliliter), and “terato,” representing a low percentage of sperm with normal morphology (less than 4%). The presence of abnormal sperm morphology can hinder fertilization and potentially affect the development of embryos.

Men with severe oligoteratozoospermia who want to have children will need to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In this treatment, sperm with good shape are selected under the microscope and injected directly into the egg, thus increasing the chances of a healthy embryo.

Are you from Ukraine? Get an accurate diagnosis for better results

Although any of these diagnoses may discourage men from pursuing their dream of conceiving a family, it is important to recognize the positive value of finding these conditions to treat them in time. That is what can represent a turning point in fertility and overall health.

It is advisable to keep up to date with general check-ups, not only to increase the chances of being able to start a family, but also to avoid these diagnoses that can lead to irreversible consequences. These diagnoses can compromise the health and well-being of patients.

If you wish to start a family and experience difficulties in conceiving or know someone who may be suffering from infertility or any complication associated with the symptoms described above, it is vital to contact clinics specialized in Oligospermy, male fertility and assisted gestation, such as Babynova Clinic by Novafem, to receive advice on these issues and be treated as soon as possible.

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